USA

 

 

I have promised to add this information from my Country Expo class on small cattle. It is not a set of guides that have ALL the plants that might be poisonous  listed

Common Poisonous Plants of Western Washington Which Affect Livestock*

 

 

Common Name/

Scientific Name

Plant Type

Part of Plant

Degree of toxicity

Poisonous Compound

Cumu-

lative?

Livestock effects**

Arrowgrass

(Triglochin maritima)

 

All

Can be severe

Glycosides (produce cyanide)

 

Under some conditions can cause illness & death in livestock.

Baneberry

(Actaea rubra)

Forb

All, esp. roots & berries

Moderate – Severe

Protoamemonin and probably a glycoside or essential oil

 

Stomach cramps, dizziness, vomiting, circulatory failure, headache.  European species have caused death.

Bleeding-heart

(Dicentra spp.)

Forb

All

Mild – Moderate

Alkaloids

 

Trembling, agitation, heavy salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, difficult breathing

Boxwood

(Buxus sempervirens)

Shrub

All

Moderate – Severe

Steroidal alkaloids (buxine)

 

Abdominal pains, vomiting, diarrhea. Large doses can cause convulsions, coma & death.

Bracken Fern (Pteridium aquilinum)

fern

all

Mild – Severe

Thiaminase enzyme, carcinogens , often glycosides (prunasin)

yes

Thiamine deficiency, which can be fatal. Cumulative effects may include cancer.  Poisonous compounds can pass into milk.

Buttercups

(Ranunculus spp.)

Forb

All

Mild – Mod

Protoanemonin from ranunculin glycoside

 

Inflammation and blistering of skin, gastrointestinal irritation. Usually only present in fresh plants, not dried.

Camas, Death

(Zigadenus venenosus)

Forb

All

Severe

Steroidal glycosidal alkaloid

 

Salivation, weakness, respiratory difficulty, nausea, convulsions, coma, death

Cherry, Choke

(Prunus virginiana)

Tree

Seeds, leaves, bark

Moderate – Severe

Cyanogenic glycoside (produces cyanide)

 

Initial rapid breathing followed by slow, difficult breathing, anxiety, excitement, confusion, headache, vomiting, dizziness, can cause death. Other related species which may be poisonous include mountain ash (Sorbus spp.), Hawthornes (Crataegus spp.), Pyracantha, Cotoneaster

Clematis

(Clematis spp.)

Vine

All

Mild – Moderate

Protoanemonin from ranunculin glycoside

 

Inflammation and blistering of skin, gastrointestinal irritation. 

Usually only present in fresh plants, not dried.

Cocklebur

(Xanthium strumarium)

Forb

All, esp. seeds & seedlings

Moderate – severe

Glycosides

 

Loss of appetite, vomiting, weakness, ataxia, spasms, in severe cases death


 

Common Name/

Scientific Name

Plant Type

Part of Plant

Degree of toxicity

Poisonous Compound

Cumu-

lative?

Livestock effects**

Crocus, Autumn

(Colchicum autumnal)

Forb

All, esp. bulb and seeds

Moderate – Severe

Alkaloids (colchiceine)

 

Burning pain in the mouth & throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, low blood pressure, shock, convulsions, coma, death (with larger doses)

Cucumber, Wild

(Marah oreganus)

Vine

Fruit

Mild – Severe

Saponic glycosides

 

Chest pains, shortness of breath, can cause death

Daffodil & Narcissus

(Narcissus spp.)

Forb

All, esp. bulbs

Moderate – Severe

Alkaloids (glycoside)

 

Dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.  Large doses can cause trembling, convulsions & death

Domestic plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, apples, pears,

(Prunus spp., Malus spp., Pyrus spp.)

 

Seeds, leaves, bark

Mild- Moderate

Cyanogenic glycoside (produces cyanide)

 

Initial rapid breathing followed by slow, difficult breathing, anxiety, excitement, confusion, headache, vomiting, dizziness, can cause death in large quantities. Toxicity may be variable.  Other related species which may be poisonous include mountain ash (Sorbus spp.), Hawthornes (Crataegus spp.), Pyracantha, Cotoneaster

Elderberry

(Sambucus spp.)

Shrub

Leaves, stems, bark and roots

Mild – Moderate

Alkaloid & cyanogenic glycoside (produced cyanide)

 

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.  Raw fruits can cause nausea.

European bittersweet

(Solanum dulcamara)

Vine

All, especially green berries

Moderate – Severe

Alkaloidal glycoside (Solanine)

 

Abdominal pain, headache, flushed skin, tiredness.  Severe cases include vomiting, thirst, difficult breathing, paralysis, dilated pupils, diarrhea, can cause death.  Green potatoes contain the same chemical but in lower concentrations.

Fiddleneck or Tarweed

(Amsinckia sp.)

Forb

All

Moderate

Thiaminase,

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

Yes

Appetite loss, timid, stupified, incoordination, liver lesions, enlarged liver (same as Tansy Ragwort)

Foxglove

(Digitalis purpurea)

Forb

All

Severe

Digitoxin and other glycosides

 

Contracted pupils, nausea, vomiting, cramps, severe headache, irregular heartbeat, labored breathing, convulsions, death, usu. a problem only in hay

Golden Chain

(Laburnum anagyroides)

Tree

All, esp. bark & seeds

Moderate – Severe

Alkaloid (systine) – similar effects to nicotine

 

Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, drowsiness, headache, dizziness, fever, irregular heartbeat, dilated pupils.  Severe cases can have convulsions, coma & death.  The toxicity varies widely.


 

Common Name/

Scientific Name

Plant Type

Part of Plant

Degree of toxicity

Poisonous Compound

Cumu-

lative?

Livestock effects**

Groundsel, Common

(Senecio vulgaris)

Forb

All

Moderate

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

Yes

Liver lesions, enlarged liver, abdominal pain, weakness, staggering, death.  Liver damage is permanent. Usually only eaten in hay or when wilted. Drying or storage doesn’t destroy toxins.

Hellebore, False

(Veratrum spp.)

Forb

All, esp. the rhizome

Moderate – Severe

alkaloids

 

Abdominal pain, vomiting diarrhea, paralysis, spasms. In severe cases can cause death.  Can cause birth defects if eaten during certain gestation periods

Hemlock, Poison

(Conium maculatum)

Forb

All

Severe

Coniine and other alkaloids

 

Teeth grinding, muscle spasms, respiratory failure, death

Hemlock, Water

(Cicuta spp.)

Forb

All, esp. root

Severe

Cicutoxin

 

Nausea, salivation, vomiting, convulsions, fever, low hear rate, abdominal pain, dilated pupils, delirium, coma, respiratory paralysis, death.  Water Parsley (Oenanthe spp.) may contain similar toxin.

Holly, English

(Ilex aquifolium)

Shrub

Berries, leaves

Mild

Glycosides and alkaloids

 

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness.

Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)

Tree

all

Moderate - Severe

Saponin glycoside, alkaloids

 

Inflammation of mucous membranes, vomiting, thirst, weakness, muscular twitching, dilated pupils, stupor, paralysis.  Coma & death can occur in severe cases

Horsetail

 (Eqisetum arvense)

Fern-ally

all

Mild - Mod

Thiaminase

yes

Destroys vitamin B1 – Symptoms include weight loss, weakness, eventual death

Iris or Yellow Flag

(Iris pseudacorus)

Forb

All, esp. rhizomes

Moderate – Severe

Glycoside

 

Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, large doses can cause death.

Ivy, English

(Hedera helix)

Vine

All, esp. leaves & berries

Moderate

Triterpene saponins (glycosides)

 

Large quantities cause vomiting, diarrhea, spasms, staggering, paralysis

Knapweed, Russian and Yellowstar Thistle

(Centaurea spp.)

Forb

All

Moderate

 

Yes

Brain deterioration resulting in “Chewing disease”, can eventually cause death by starvation

Knotweeds

(Polygonum spp.)

Forb

All

Mild

Oxalic acid

 

Large quantities can cause interference with calcium metabolism in the body & possible phototoxicity

Lambsquarters

(Chenopodium album)

Forb

All

Mild

Oxalates

 

Large quantities can cause interference with calcium metabolism in the body & possible phototoxicity

Larkspur

(Delphinium spp.)

Forb

All

Severe

Alkaloids (delphinine)

 

Constipation, bloat, dilation of pupils, vomiting, depression, paralysis, death


 

Common Name/

Scientific Name

Plant Type

Part of Plant

Degree of toxicity

Poisonous Compound

Cumu-

lative?

Livestock effects**

Laurel, English

(Prunus laurocerasus)

Shrub

Seeds, leaves, bark

Mild- Moderate

Cyanogenic glycoside (produces cyanide)

 

Initial rapid breathing followed by slow, difficult breathing, anxiety, excitement, confusion, headache, vomiting, dizziness, can cause death in large quantities. Toxicity may be variable.  Other related species which may be poisonous include mountain ash (Sorbus spp.), Hawthornes (Crataegus spp.), Pyracantha, Cotoneaster

Lily of the Valley

(Convallaria majalis)

Forb

All

Severe

Cardiac glycosides (digitalis-like)

 

Burning pain in mouth & throat, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, dilated pupils, slow & irregular heartbeat, sometimes coma and death.

Locust, Black or Honey

(Robinia pseudo-acacia)

Tree

All

Mild – Moderate

Poisonous proteins

 

Lassitude, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, delirium, coma, death in livestock in severe cases

Lupine

(Lupinus spp.)

Forb

All

Moderate

Alkaloids (lupinine)

Yes

Birth defects, spasms, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, & in severe cases death

Nightshade, Black

(Solanum nigrum)

Nightshade, Hairy

(Solanum sarrachoides)

Vine

All, especially green berries

Moderate – Severe

Alkaloidal glycoside (Solanine)

 

Abdominal pain, headache, flushed skin, tiredness.  Severe cases include vomiting, thirst, difficult breathing, paralysis, dilated pupils, diarrhea, can cause death.  Green potatoes contain the same chemical but in lower concentrations.

Oak

(Quercus spp.)

Tree

All, but esp. acorns

Slight

Tannins (?)

 

Constipation, blood in urine

Pea, Wild; Sweet Pea

(Lathyrus spp.)

Forb

Foliage, seeds

Mild

Toxic amino acids

 

Paralysis, convulsions, death.  Toxic only in large quantities. 

Pigweed

(Amaranthus spp.)

Forb

All

Mild

Oxalates, nitrates

 

Large doses can cause fluid accumulation around kidneys.

Poison Oak, Poison Ivy

(Toxicodendron spp.)

Shrub/ Vine

All

Mild – Moderate

Oleoresin (urushiol)

Yes

Itching, burning, redness of skin, blisters

Ponderosa  Pine

 (Pinus ponderosa)

Tree

Needles

Mild - Mod

 

 

Abortion

Ragwort, Tansy

(Senecio jacobea)

Forb

All

Moderate

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

Yes

Liver lesions, enlarged liver, digestive disturbances, restlessness, lack of coordination, weakness, staggering, death.  Liver damage is permanent. Usually only eaten in hay or when wilted. Drying or storage doesn’t destroy toxins.  Toxins can contaminate milk & honey.


 

Common Name/

Scientific Name

Plant Type

Part of Plant

Degree of toxicity

Poisonous Compound

Cumu-

lative?

Livestock effects**

Rhododendron

(Rhododendron spp.)

Shrub

All

Mild – Severe

Glycosides

 

Burning of lips, mouth, salivation, nausea, severe vomiting, coma & death in the most severe cases. The toxin can contaminate honey.

Rhubarb

(Rheum rhabarbarum)

Forb

Leaves

Moderate

Oxalic acid & oxalates (irritant poison)

 

Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, drowsiness, large doses can cause convulsions, coma & death.  Oxalic acid interferes with calcium metabolism as well

Scotch Broom

(Cytisus scoparius)

Shrub

All

Mild – Moderate

Quinolizidine alkaloids

 

Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain

Serviceberry

(Amalanchier alnifolia)

Shrub

Leaves, twigs

Mild- Moderate

Cyanogenic glycoside (produces cyanide)

 

Initial rapid breathing followed by slow, difficult breathing, anxiety, excitement, confusion, headache, vomiting, dizziness.

Skunk Cabbage

(Lysichitum americanum)

Forb

All

Mild – Moderate

Calcium oxalate crystals

 

Physical irritation and swelling of mouth, throat, etc. as crystals pierce the skin

Snowberry

(Symphoricarpos albus)

Shrub

Berries

Moderate – Severe

Alkaloids

 

Vomiting, dizziness, semi-comatose state

Sorrel

(Rumex spp.)

Forb

All

Mild

Oxalic acid

 

Large quantities can cause interference with calcium metabolism in the body

St. John’s-Wort or Goatweed, Klamath Weed

(Hypericum perforatum)

Forb

All

Mild – Moderate

Hypericin

 

Photosensitization – blisters, swelling and lesions on the skin, particularly light-skinned animals.  Subsequent exposure has more severe symptoms.  Loss of appetite, diarrhea, increased respiration & heartbeat, high temp., blindness, convulsions, sometimes coma & death.  Symptoms are often delayed.

Swamp laurel

(Kalmia sp.)

Shrub

Leaves, flowers

Mild – Moderate

Andromedo-toxin, arbutin

 

Burning of lips, mouth, salivation, nausea, severe vomiting, coma & death in the most severe cases.

Tansy, Common

(Tanacetum vulgare)

Forb

All

Moderate – Severe

Tanacetin

 

Rapid pulse, stomach inflammation, convulsions, abortion, occasionally fatal.  However, rarely grazed because of strong taste and smell.


 

Common Name/

Scientific Name

Plant Type

Part of Plant

Degree of toxicity

Poisonous Compound

Cumu-

lative?

Livestock effects**

Tarweed

(Amsinckia spp.)

Forb

All

Moderate

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

Yes

Liver lesions, enlarged liver, digestive disturbances, restlessness, lack of coordination, weakness, staggering, death.  Liver damage is permanent. Usually only eaten in hay or when wilted. Drying or storage doesn’t destroy toxins.

Vetch, Common

(Vicia sativa)

Forb

Foliage, seeds

Mild – Severe

Cyanogenic glycosides (produces cyanide)

 

Amount of toxins in plants highly variable. Initial rapid breathing followed by slow, difficult breathing, anxiety, excitement, confusion, headache, vomiting, dizziness, can cause death.

Yarrow

(Achillea millefolium)

Forb

All

Mild

Glucosides & alkaloids

 

If eaten in quantity can cause gastric problems.

Yew

(Taxus brevifolia)

Tree

All, except perhaps the flesh around the seed.

Moderate – Severe

Alkaloid (taxine), ephedrine, cyanogenic glycoside

 

Gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting, diarrheas, rash, drowsiness, irregular heartbeat,  labored breathing, trembling, collapse. Large amounts can cause death.

 

*              Most poisonous plants are not readily consumed because they taste bad or feel bad in the mouth.  Most species included in this list are not commonly grazed but may be consumed in hay, as shrub trimmings which are left accessible, as bulbs exposed through soil-turning activities, or if there is little other feed in the pasture or confinement area.

 

**           Many of these plants have similar effects on humans!  The major symptoms and effects are

listed, but the list is NOT all-inclusive.  Consult the local Poison Control Center for a complete

listing and information about treatment.

 

 

Sources:  Plants that Poison Livestock in Thurston County, by Thurston County Noxious Weed Control Agency

                Pasture Management for Horses and Ponies, by Gillian McCarthy

                Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms of North America  by Nancy J. Turner and Adam F. Szczawinski

                A Guide to Selected Weeds of Oregon (Supplement), by Hawkes, et.al., Oregon Department of Agriculture 1989

 

Compiled by:  Marty Chaney,  Pasture Management Specialist

USDA – Natural Resources Conservation Service, Olympia, WA  12/99
 
.
 
 

 

 

 

[Refresh/Reload]

Images & Text in this site are Copyright © - DO NOT COPY!

Web By FarmWebs.com